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Fertilization of the autumn cereals

Application of fertilizers is a major factor to increase grain production by the autumn. The problem of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use on wheat and barley is required on all types of soil in our country, considering the state of land supply in these nutrients.


The productions obtained without fertilizer application is usually low and does not cover expenses incurred in many cases the location and maintenance of these cultures.

Thus, the cambic chernozem at Bottom, one of the most fertile soil of our country, the average production obtained from wheat grown after corn in irrigated grain is below 2000 kg / ha without fertilizer and grain exceeded 5000 kg / ha when applied fertilizers.

Fertilizers can help double or even triple grain production in paioase.In many cases, the reasons more or less objective does not apply fertilizers, leading to obtain lower production and poor economic results.


Increases obtained from a fertilizer application per kg active ingredient are on average 10-15 kg grain can exceed 25 kg grain, under certain conditions.
Considering that, one kg of fertilizer (including enforcement) costs about 4 kg beans as clear high economic efficiency of fertilizer application to cereals straw. The autumn cereals as well capitalize on organic fertilizers, as well as the mineral soil types.


Organic fertilizers are better capitalized on podzolic soils with adverse physical and chemical plant culture.
However, manure should be applied in state semifermentata or fermented, as there is danger of soil infestation with weed seeds when fresh.
Garbage recommended dose of 15-20 t / ha, applied uniformly to the soil surface and immediately incorporated into the soil with plowing. However, manure is best to apply to plant row crops and cereal straw to receive residual effect in subsequent years.


Consideration for the the autumn grain phosphorus fertilizer should be given that due to lower water solubility and low mobility in soil, should be incorporated before planting, preferably in plowing.
Phosphorus fertilizer application after sowing without incorporation, leading to their recovery and reduced to practice when it was not possible to apply 30-60 kg P2O5/ha furrow before the form of complex fertilizers, which have higher solubility in water, compared with simple phosphorus.


The problem of potassium fertilizer in cereal straw is placed primarily on soils poor in this element, such as podzolurile and sandy soils. Apply fertilizer with phosphorus.

Nitrogen fertilizers are necessary for wheat and barley on soil types, the ratio between nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N: P2O5: K2) is generally in favor of nitrogen: 1: (0.5-1): (0 - 0.5).


Given the climatic conditions in our country and the economic efficiency of fertilizer doses ranging from cereal straw are generally between 60-140 kg N - 40-80 kg P2O5 - 0-60 kg K2O/ha.


Nitrogen has a high solubility in soil and there is danger of its leachate on soil profile is applied in several phases, depending on plant requirements.


In the fall, until the twinning stage, demand is relatively small grain straw and avoid leaching phenomenon is advisable to apply a quantity of 30-40 kg N / ha in autumn and nitrogen dose difference between the winter - spring, being able to make correlations depending on condition and rainfall during the autumn-winter.


In the autumn, nitrogen fertilizer applied before planting, or after sowing, the soil surface. Application of high doses of nitrogen in the fall, besides the fact that can lead to leaching losses and adversely affect plant resistance to fall. On fertile soils or where the plant was a pre-pulses may be waived for the autumn application of nitrogen.


Fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers will provide the complex with N, P, K or simple (ammonium nitrate, urea, nitrocalcarul, potassium salt, simple superphosphate, concentrated superphosphate, etc..)


When using fertilizers to cereal straw, special attention should be paid to uniformity of application and the ratio of nutrients.


Non-uniform application of fertilizers with nitrogen and phosphorus or unilateral application of nitrogen fertilizer on soils poorly supplied with phosphorus can lead to imbalances between nitrates and phosphates in soil and plant, which is manifested by a low twinning plant, delay in growth, wilting leaves or leaves burned.


Unilateral use of nitrogen fertilizer and, in particular those with a high potential acidification may have resulted in less effective or even a negative effect on acid soils.
Therefore we prefer the application of lower doses, but balanced, nitrogen and phosphorus, which helps to achieve high efficiency of application of fertilizers.


Autor: Dr. ing. Vasile Mihaila
I.C.C.P.T. - Fundulea